Monosaccharides are sugars sedarhana which only consists of one molecule / cluster sugar.
Monosaccharides are carbohydrates in the form of simple sugars. As disaccharides, monosaccharides taste sweet, water soluble, and crystalline.
Monosaccharides are classified by the number of carbon atoms they contain (trioses, tetrosa, pentose, hexose, and heptose) and active group, which can be aldehyde or ketone. These are then combined, eg aldohexoses and ketotrioses.
Further, each carbon atom that binds the hydroxyl group (except at both ends) are optically active, resulting in several different carbohydrates although essentially the same structure. For example, galactose is aldohexoses, but has different properties from glucose because the atoms are arranged differently.
Glucose is a aldohexoses, also known as dextrose because it plays right field polarization. Glucose is the main component of blood sugar, arrange 0.065 to 0.11% of our blood.
Glucose can be formed from the hydrolysis of starch, glycogen, and maltose. Glucose is very important for us because our body cells use it immediately to produce energy. Glucose can be oxidized by gently oxidizing agent such as reagent Tollens so often referred to as reducing sugars.
Galactose is a aldohexoses. This monosaccharide rarely found free in nature. Generally binds to glucose in the form of lactose, the sugar found in milk. Galactose has a taste less sweet than glucose and less soluble in water. As with glucose, galactose is also a reducing sugar.
Fructose is a heksulosa, also known as levulose because it plays into the left-field polarization. Is the only heksulosa found in nature. Fructose is the sweetest sugar, found in honey and fruit together with glucose.
Fructose can be formed from hydrolysis of a disaccharide called sucrose. Just as glucose, fructose is a reducing sugar.
HOW CAN THAT FORMED monosaccharides?
Polysaccharides are the most complex carbohydrate compound, which formed as a composite of many monosaccharides. Actually, where the hell the first time the formation of monosaccharides and where all the merging - merging these to produce compounds that have important biological functions?
The compound - a compound that includes monosaccharides are glucose, galactose and fructose. The compound - a compound formed during the process of photosynthesis. Of this, still remember what substances resulting from the process of photosynthesis?
CH2O + CO2 + H20 O2
Based on the above reaction, the resulting compound is CH2O and O2 or sugar and oxygen. But keep in mind also, CH2O was not the real sugar, but it only describes the general formula of carbohydrates. Sugar is actually formed when formed even C6H12O6.
The equation above represents a synthesis of carbonated sugar with one-time reaction. In other words, in order to form a compound of sugar in the form of glucose (C6H12O6), the reaction to be through repetition as much as 6 times (exact reaction took place during the dark reaction in fotosisntesis).
Sugar compounds obtained are not only in the form of glucose alone, but can also include fructose and galactose. This is because, whether glucose, fructose and galactose had six the number of atoms C. If you like this, then how sugar - the sugar can be specialized to glucose, fructose and galactose?
Well, for this case let's talk about the structure of monosaccharides. Monosaccharide functions grouped into clusters based on aldose (containing aldehyde groups) and ketosa (containing clusters ketosa). Glucose and galactose are included in the aldose, but if glucose has OH atomic groups on the right while galactose has the OH atomic groups on the left. While fructose included in ketosa.
glucose fructose galactose
As mentioned earlier, the process of formation of these sugars occurs during photosynthesis, but the process is also not as simple persaaman above. The formation of this sugar through a process, called the light reaction and dark reaction. These reactions occur within kloroflas.
In the light reaction, H2O decomposed by sunlight into H + O2 and light absorbed by chlorophyll moving the acceptor (electron acceptor) which is called NADP + to bring é and H are to be stored temporarily, while its O2 is released as byproducts. Because its function is such that, NADP + and then transformed into NADPH (addition of H +).
In addition to the byproducts O2, ATP is also produced. So in this light reaction, the sun changed by chemical energy into two forms of compounds ATP and NADPH. Then, two compounds used in the dark reaction, well then here is formed sugars (CH2O) with the aid of compounds ATP and NADPH.
Compound - sugar compounds are then joined, for example glucose + fructose into sucrose (disaccharide). Sucrose is then later used as a means of transfer in plants (carrying the results of photosynthesis). In addition, other examples of closer integration in our lives that is glucose + glucose into starch. In nature a form of starch (starch) is much contained in rice, wheat, corn, grain-like red beans or green beans, and many are also contained in various kinds of tubers such as cassava, potatoes or yams.
Merger monosaccharides can also occur in the bodies of animals / humans, namely in the muscle; happen pengabungan glucose + glucose into glycogen that will become a source of energy for the organism.